20/1/2018 · TTKG( Transtubular potassium gradient )是臨床上常用來判斷高血鉀、低血鉀的工具之一，但是卻不是所有情況都可以用TTKG來鑑別診斷異常血鉀，此篇文章由鉀離子在腎臟的排泄說起，再介紹TTKG公式的推導，以及TTKG使用上的條件，最後簡介高血鉀和低血鉀的TTKG。
Transtubular potassium gradient (TTKG) is an index reflecting the conservation of potassium in the cortical collecting ducts of the kidneys. It is useful in diagnosing the cause of hyperkalemia. Formulas Used: TTKG = (Urine K * Plasmaosm) / (Plasma K *Urineosm
30/5/2013 · Order: serum K and osmolality, urine K and urine osmolalityFormula: Uk/Pk / Uosm/PosmNormal levels should be 8-9In hyperkalemia, should be >10, if low <7 indicates mineralocorticoid deficiencyIn hypokalemia, should be <3, if higher means
The transtubular potassium concentration gradient (TTKG) is a semiquantitative index of the activity of the K secretory process. The purpose of this study was to define expected values for the TTKG in normal subjects with hypokalemia or following an acute K
The transtubular potassium gradient (TTKG) is a simple physiologically based clinical test to study the renal excretion of potassium. This article reviews the most important physiological changes influencing TTKG, the hypokalaemia and hyperkalaemia, the effect of
Notes The transtubular potassium gradient in the cortical collecting duct is an index reflecting conservation of potassium. A normal TTKG in normal subjects on normal diets is 8-9. With a potassium load the TTKG may rise to 11. In the face of Hyperkalemia, a low TTKG (<7) may indicate hypoaldosteronism.
(Mineralcorticoid increases TTKG). 2. In hypokalemia – kidney try to conserve potassium and TTKG should fall to less than 2 (like in GI source). If TTKG remains higher, it suggests renal loss of potassium (like in diuretics). Limitations: 1. Always check urine 2.
Trans-tubular potassium gradient (TTKG), the driving force for net potassium secretion, reflects mainly the bioactivity of aldosterone with regard to the kaliuretic response . It has been
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Transtubular Potassium Gradient (TTKG) TTKG = [U K /(U O sm /P O sm )] / P K • Estimates mineralocorticoid activity • Normal range 3-7 • Increase in potassium loading and appropriate aldosterone release and action • A value of less than 3 in the setting of
The transtubular potassium concentration gradient (TTKG) has been reported to be a marker of renal aldosterone bioactivity. This study tested the hypothesis that TTKG can be a surrogate of arterial underfilling in patients with ADHF. METHODSANDRESULTS We
The transtubular potassium gradient in the cortical collecting duct is an index reflecting conservation of potassium. A normal TTKG in normal subjects on Tema: Gradiente Transtubular de Potasio (TTKG). Integrantes: SGP-12 Gabriela Rodriguez, Miluska
Three urinary indexes of renal response to hypokalemia were studied: spot urine potassium concentration, TTKG, and potassium-creatinine ratio. Although all 3 indexes have been used previously, their ability to distinguish between HPP and non-HPP has never
This index has been called the transtubular potassium gradient (TTKG). 39, 122, 204, 205 A value of 5.0 or higher has been said to indicate the presence of an aldosterone effect, whereas a value of 3.0 or less is expected in the absence of mineralocorticoid 205
The TTKG was not useful for differentiating the various elements of renal potassium handling that can go off the rails to cause hyperkalemia. The TTKG could do a neat job of differentiating renal from extra-renal potassium losses in hypokalemia. Then in 2011
The present investigation was designed to validate the usefulness of transtubular potassium (K) concentration gradient (TTKG) as an indicator of aldosterone bio-activity in infants and children. We compared this index with fractional K excretion (FE K) and urine K concentration to urine sodium (Na) concentration ratio (U K /U Na) in 473 normal children aged 1 month–15 years.
A measurement of how avidly the kidneys retain potassium. The TTKG is used clinically to determine the cause of high serum potassium levels. It is represented mathematically as the urinary potassium concentration/plasma potassium concentration, all divided by
คำนวณค า TTKG (Transtubular potassium gradient) TTKG ค อ ด ชน การข บโพแทสเซ ยมของท อไต ใช ประเม นการทำงานของไตในภาวะโพแทสเซ ยมในเล อดผ ดปกต
The transtubular potassium gradient (TTKG) can also be calculated using the serum and urine potassium and urine osmolality, and reflects the amount of potassium excreted in the tubule (see Table 1).The TTKG should decrease in hypokalemia when urinary
The trans-tubular potassium gradient (TTKG) is an index reflecting the conservation of potassium in the cortical collecting ducts (CCD) of the kidneys.It is useful in diagnosing the causes of hyperkalemia or hypokalemia  .The TTKG estimates the ratio of
Transtubular potassium gradient — In a later publication, the authors of the original studies found that the assumptions underlying the TTKG were not valid. It was concluded that the TTKG was not a reliable test for the diagnosis of hyperkalemia.
兩者的診斷皆可由經管腔鉀離子差度(transtubular potassium gradient, TTKG)及尿液排出的鉀離子濃度來診斷，臨床血鉀異常最須注意的是心臟傳導問題，可能會造成生命危險；低血鉀可以補充鉀離子，高血鉀則可使用Calcium gluconate 穩定心臟，胰島素、、 、
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TTKG之生與死 作者: 葉時孟醫師 ( Shih-Meng Yeh, MD ) TTKG ( Trans-tubular potassium gradient，腎小管兩側鉀梯度差 ) 在筆者醫學生時代至主治醫師初期，是在病人產生高低血鉀時，用來評估腎臟排鉀反應是否適當、鑑別發生原因的重要工具。
Potassium chloride has been shown to be the most effective means of replacing acute potassium loss. 4. Potassium supplements are best administered orally in a moderate dosage over a period of days to weeks to achieve the full repletion of potassium. 5.
低血鉀代表血液中的鉀離子濃度低於3.5 mmol/L，原因包括真的鉀離子缺乏、鉀離子再分布不均、假性低血鉀 。如果是鉀離子再分布不均可能是酸鹼不平衡、使用 胰島素 （Insulin）造成鉀離子往細胞內移動、Theophylline、或是 低血鉀週期性麻痺症
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potassium, TTKG is likely to reflect the bioactivity of both vasopressin and aldosterone. Due to these characteristics and its ease of quantification, TTKG may therefore have applica-tions as a surrogate marker of arterial underfilling in the clini-cal setting. The aim
The spot urine potassium concentration, fractional excretion of potassium (FE K), and transtubular potassium gradient (TTKG) can be used to help differentiate between renal and nonrenal causes of hypokalemia and hyperkalemia. 4–7 The spot urine K + level is K
6/12/2018 · A TTKG value of less than 3 suggests that the kidney is not wasting excessive potassium, while a value of greater than 7 suggests a significant renal loss. This test cannot be applied when the urine osmolality is less than the serum osmolality.Potassium excretion
TTKG is calculated as follows: Urine K x Serum osm/Serum K x Urine osm It is most commonly used in patients with hyperkalemia Where a TTKG <6 Indicates an inappropriate renal response to hyperkalemia, that is Reduced renal potassium
Mihran Naljayan, Suresh Kumar, Theodore Steinman, Efrain Reisin, Hypomagnesemia and hypokalemia: a successful oral therapeutic approach after 16 years of potassium and magnesium intravenous replacement therapy, Clinical Kidney Journal, Volume 7
Transtubular potassium (K) gradient (TTKG) was measured using the following formula: TTKG=(Ku/Kp) × (Posm/Uosm), where Ku and Kp are the concentrations of potassium in urine and plasma, respectively, and Uosm and Posm are the osmolalities of urine
HYPERKALEMIA: Reduced Excretion Hyperkalemia Serum potassium > 5.5 mmol/L Transcellular Shift Reduced ExcretionPrincipal Cell Problem TTKG < 7 Decreased Glomerular Filtration RateIncreased Creatinine High Renin Low Aldosterone Low ReninLow
Disturbances of potassium homeostasis can cause either hyperkalemia or hypokalemia and result in serious consequences. Although the consequences of acute and chronic hyperkalemia and treatment of these conditions in CKD have been widely appreciated
The kidney should be dumping potassium with a TTKG of at least 10, especially with high urine sodium. Urine osmolarity is not low enough to affect tubular flow and potassium excretion. Is she orthostatic? Henle, with a curious look A tad; no change in heart
One day after initiation of intravenous potassium replacement, the serum potassium level returned to 3.5 meq/L and the patient’s muscle power recovered nearly completely. Transtubular potassium gradient (TTKG
Regulation of urinary potassium excretion Stimulation of K secretion by principal cells • An increase in plasma potassium concentration and/or potassium intake • An increase in aldosterone secretion • Enhanced delivery of sodium and water to the distal potassium 6.
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Potassium (serum, plasma, blood) 1 Name and description of analyte 1.1 Name of analyte Potassium (K+) 1.2 Alternative names None 1.3 NMLC code To follow 1.4 Description of analyte Potassium is an alkaline metal, atomic number 19. It occurs in
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Clinical and Etiological Profile of Hypokalemia: A Prospective Study in a Tertiary Care Hospital Suhail A. Malik1, Mosin S. Khan2, Syed Mudassar2, Parvaiz A. Koul1,* 1Department of Internal Medicine, Sher-I-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Srinagar
Learn how urine potassium differentiates between GI and renal causes of hypokalemia or low potassium. TTKG = urine potassium/(plasma osmolality/urine osmolality)/serum potassium For this formula to be accurate urine osmolality should be higher than
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The calculated transtubular potassium gradient (TTKG) was 6.0, and the urine net charge (UNC) was +57 mEq/liter. Despite severe hyperkalemia and metabolic acidosis, the elec-trocardiogram revealed a normal sinus rhythm. Kayexalate was given rectally and
HYPERKALEMIA answers are found in the Harrison’s Manual of Medicine powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, and Web. The first priority in the management of hyperkalemia is to assess the need for emergency treatment (ECG
5-2 TTKG<10 Hypotension – high renin and aldosterone inhibit the effect of aldosterone pseudohypoaldosteronism Drugs K+-sparing diuretics: Spironolactone(Aldactone), amiloride and triamterence Trimethoprim(blocking distal nephron Na+ reabsorption) 5-3
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Mechanism of Hypokalemia in Magnesium Deficiency Chou-Long Huang*† and Elizabeth Kuo* *Department of Medicine, †Charles and Jane Pak Center for Mineral Metabolism and Clinical Research, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas
HYPOKALEMIA answers are found in the Harrison’s Manual of Medicine powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, and Web. The cause of hypokalemia is usually obvious from history, physical examination, and/or basic
Start studying PANRE Renal PALife. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Impaired renal function with increased potassium intake Tissue breakdown Blood transfusion Transcellular shift (e.g., hyperkalemic periodic
Transtubular potassium gradient (TTKG) was estimated to be above seven. The serum creatinine phosphokinase, renin, aldosterone, cortisol, uric acid, and phosphorous levels were within normal limits. Hemoglobin A1c was 8.1%, with 2+ proteinuria noted.
potassium with reduced excretion) Reduced flow through distal nephron TTKG > 7, Urine Na < 20meq/L Low EABV (e.g., CHF, cirrhosis, hypotension) Exclude pseudohyperkalemia Leukocytosis, thrombocytosis, hemolysisTTKG = (KUrine x OsmSerum